The HTML <link> tag

You must aware of HTML tags. There are several tags that define elements and linked resources of the web pages. Have you ever use the HTML link tag ? Its so stupid question but there is reason behind putting this question , The HTML link tag is very useful and amazing.

It has three main attribute

1. rel
2. type
3. href

The rel attribute define the relationship between page and linked web resource that could be a stylesheet, bookmark, alternate url and so on.

The type attribute define MIME(Multipurpose Mail Extension) of the web resource.

The href attribute define url of the web resource to be linked with page.


<link rel="Relationship" type="MIME Type" href="URL" / >

Here is the list of possible values of the rel attribute:

* alternate - an alternate version of the document(print page, translated/mirror)
* stylesheet - an external style sheet for the document
* shortcut icon - the fevicon of the document
* start - the first document in a selection
* next - the next document in the current selection
* prev - the previous document in the current selection
* contents - a table of contents for the document
* index - an index for the document
* glossary - a glossary (explanation) of words used in the document
* copyright - a document containing copyright information
* chapter - a chapter of a selection of documents
* section - a section of a selection of documents
* subsection - a subsection of a selection of documents
* appendix - an appendix of a selection of documents
* help - a help document
* bookmark - a related document

Note: Most browsers do not use this attribute in any way. However, search engines, and some browsers, may us this attribute to get more information about the link.

Linking a stylesheet with the page is one of most commonly used purpose of the HTML link tag. Here I'm going to show you more interesting uses of this tag.

Example 1:
This example with show a small icon in the browser's address bar before the URL

<link rel="shortcut icon" type="image/x-icon" href="fevicon.ico" / >

Example 2:
This example will show a RSS link in the browser's address bar after the URL

<link rel="alternate" type="application/rss+xml" title="RSS" href="">

Example 3:
This example will show company's copyright information

<link rel="copyright" href="/copyright.shtml" title="Copyright">

Example 4:
This will link Author information with the page

<link rel="author" href="/about/index.shtml" title="About">

Example 5:
We can have link tag for many purposes

<TITLE>Document Tags</TITLE>
<LINK REL=NEXT TITLE="Lines and Paragraphs" HREF="../linepar/">
<LINK REV=MADE TITLE="Ravindra Patel" HREF="">
<LINK REL=COPYRIGHT TITLE="copyright info" HREF="copyright.html">
<LINK REL=STYLESHEET TITLE="style sheet" HREF="stdstyles.css">

There are much more on link tag. Post your comments if you want to know more about the HTML tags

ASP.NET From PHP Perspective

You Can also follow the URL:

Using LINQ

An Introduction to Microsoft Silverlight

You can also follow the URLs

Basics of Jquery

You can also use the following link for the video

Asp.Net 2.0 Membership I LoginStatus LoginName

How to: Create an ASP.NET Login Page

You can create a login page by using the ASP.NET login control. The control consists of text boxes, a check box and a button control. The text boxes collect username and password information from the user. The check box is used to remember the user's credentials and the button is used to submit the information the user provides. The login control simplifies creating login pages for form authentication. This login control takes a user name and password and uses ASP.NET membership and forms authentication to verify the user's credentials and create an authentication ticket. For information about how to configure ASP.NET membership and forms authentication. If a user selects the Remember me next time check box, the control creates a persistent cookie that remembers the user's credentials.

The login control functions as expected when you create an ASP.NET Web site with membership, configure membership, and create a membership user.

To create a login page

  1. Create an ASP.NET Web application that uses ASP.NET membership.

  2. Create an ASP.NET Web page named Login.aspx in your application.( By default, ASP.NET forms authentication is configured to use a page named Login.aspx. You can change the default login page name in the Web.config file for your application using the Login Url property.)
  3. Add a Login control to the page.
  4. Set the control's Designation page Url property to the name of the page that the user will be redirected to after they log in. For example, you can set the DestinationPageUrl property to DestinationPageUrl="~/Membership/MembersHome.aspx", a members only page. If you do not specify a value for the Designation Page Url property, the user will be redirected to the original page the user requested after successfully logging in.
  5. The following example shows the markup for a Login control:

About IIS(Internet Information Servicces)

Over the years, it has become simple for advanced Web users to create their own Web site. Once an end-user has registered their domain name, there are various types of hosters to choose from. Web hosters are available throughout the world to meet the demands of end customers. But regardless of which hoster is chosen, the scenario of signing up and creating a web site is similar in all cases.
Initially, a new user account needs to be established for the user. Once the account has been set up, the end user decides what features and options the site should incorporate: for instance, how much disk space, FTP capability, creation of virtual directories, whether or not databases are needed, etc. Hosters build control panels or dashboard applications that allow end users to create and manage these features.
There are a number of ways that these capabilities can be implemented into the control panel. In this section, we look at implementing the provisioning aspect of these features through managed code. An outline of the features is as follows:
Provision new user account
Create content storage
Create Application Pool
Create Web site
Create binding
Create root application
Create Virtual directory
Create FTP site
Provision New User Account
A user account is needed for the site owner who manages and maintains the site. The account can either be an Active Directory Account, or a local user account. To simplify the scenario, we only illustrate creating a local user account.
The following code fragments demonstrate the creation of a local account.
The System.DirectoryServices namespace must be specified.

public static bool CreateLocalUserAccount(string userName, string password)
if (string.IsNullOrEmpty(userName))
throw new ArgumentNullException("userName", "Invalid User Name.");
if (string.IsNullOrEmpty(password))
throw new ArgumentNullException("password", "Invalid Password.");
DirectoryEntry directoryEntry = new DirectoryEntry("WinNT://" + Environment.MachineName + ",computer");
bool userFound = false;
if (directoryEntry.Children.Find(userName, "user") != null)
userFound = true;
userFound = false;
if (!userFound)
DirectoryEntry newUser = directoryEntry.Children.Add(userName, "user"); newUser.Invoke("SetPassword", new object[] { password });
newUser.Invoke("Put", new object[] { "Description", "Application Pool User Account" }); newUser.CommitChanges();
catch (Exception ex)
throw new Exception(ex.Message, ex);
} return true;
Create Content Storage
The content storage requires specific permissions configured for users to manage their own contents. The following code fragment demonstrates how to set directory permissions using managed code in C#:

InheritanceFlags inheritanceFlags, PropagationFlags propagationFlags, AccessControlType controlType)
// Create a new DirectoryInfo object.
DirectoryInfo dInfo = new DirectoryInfo(directoryPath);
// Get a DirectorySecurity object that represents the
// current security settings.
DirectorySecurity dSecurity = dInfo.GetAccessControl();
// Add the FileSystemAccessRule to the security settings.
dSecurity.AddAccessRule(new FileSystemAccessRule(userAccount, rights, inheritanceFlags, propagationFlags, controlType));
// Set the new access settings.
catch (Exception ex)
throw new Exception(ex.Message, ex);
return true;
Furthermore, if disk quota is restricted, the following code fragment demonstrates how to set disk quota using managed code. To use the disk quota management, you must add reference to Windows Disk Quota management component; it resides under window\system32\dskquota.dll.

public static bool AddUserDiskQuota(string userName, double quota, double quotaThreshold, string diskVolume)
DiskQuotaControlClass diskQuotaCtrl = GetDiskQuotaControl(diskVolume); diskQuotaCtrl.UserNameResolution = UserNameResolutionConstants.dqResolveNone; DIDiskQuotaUser diskUser = diskQuotaCtrl.AddUser(userName);
diskUser.QuotaLimit = quota;
diskUser.QuotaThreshold = quotaThreshold;
catch (Exception ex)
throw new Exception(ex.Message, ex);
return true;

Create Application Pool
An application pool defines the settings for a worker process that hosts one or more IIS 7.0 applications, carrying out their request processing. The application pool is a unit of process isolation, since all request processing for an application runs within its application pool's worker processes.
It is also a unit of isolation from a security perspective, since the application pool can run with a different identity, and ACL all needed resources exclusively for itself to prevent applications in other application pools from being able to access its resources. The following code fragment demonstrates the creation of an application pool, setting the identity, and setting properties.

public static bool CreateApplicationPool(string applicationPoolName, ProcessModelIdentityType identityType, string applicationPoolIdentity, string password, string managedRuntimeVersion, bool autoStart, bool enable32BitAppOnWin64,ManagedPipelineMode managedPipelineMode, long queueLength, TimeSpan idleTimeout, long periodicRestartPrivateMemory, TimeSpan periodicRestartTime)
if (identityType == ProcessModelIdentityType.SpecificUser)
if (string.IsNullOrEmpty(applicationPoolName))
throw new ArgumentNullException("applicationPoolName", "CreateApplicationPool: applicationPoolName is null or empty.");
if (string.IsNullOrEmpty(applicationPoolIdentity))
throw new ArgumentNullException("applicationPoolIdentity", "CreateApplicationPool: applicationPoolIdentity is null or empty.");
if (string.IsNullOrEmpty(password))
throw new ArgumentNullException("password", "CreateApplicationPool: password is null or empty.");
using (ServerManager mgr = new ServerManager())
ApplicationPool newAppPool = mgr.ApplicationPools.Add(applicationPoolName);
if (identityType == ProcessModelIdentityType.SpecificUser)
newAppPool.ProcessModel.IdentityType = ProcessModelIdentityType.SpecificUser; newAppPool.ProcessModel.UserName = applicationPoolIdentity; newAppPool.ProcessModel.Password = password;
newAppPool.ProcessModel.IdentityType = identityType;
if (!string.IsNullOrEmpty(managedRuntimeVersion)) newAppPool.ManagedRuntimeVersion = managedRuntimeVersion; newAppPool.AutoStart = autoStart;
newAppPool.Enable32BitAppOnWin64 = enable32BitAppOnWin64; newAppPool.ManagedPipelineMode = managedPipelineMode;
if (queueLength > 0)
newAppPool.QueueLength = queueLength;
if (idleTimeout != TimeSpan.MinValue)
newAppPool.ProcessModel.IdleTimeout = idleTimeout;
if (periodicRestartPrivateMemory > 0) newAppPool.Recycling.PeriodicRestart.PrivateMemory = periodicRestartPrivateMemory; if (periodicRestartTime != TimeSpan.MinValue) newAppPool.Recycling.PeriodicRestart.Time = periodicRestartTime;
catch (Exception ex)
throw new Exception(ex.Message, ex);
return true;

Using LINQ to Create a Pager for SQL Data in C#

Using LINQ to SQL, we can make use of the built-in methods to page the database data a lot easier than with using SQL alone. LINQ to SQL can make it extremely easy for us to create pages from our data source using just two methods - Skip and Take.Skip allows us to skip a certain number of records, and Take allows us to select a certain number of records.
In this tutorial, we will be creating a SQL database and adding a LINQ to SQL Class that Visual Studio creates to represent our database. We will then extend the class to support paging of the data, using the methods mentioned above.Let's start by creating our database. In this example, we will use one table named tblEmployees with three columns - id, name, position.Once the database is set up, we will add some sample data - we will need at least 5 records to make use of the paging feature.
Once we have our database set up and have added data to it, we then need to create a representation of our database using a LINQ to SQL Class. Right-click your project in the Solution Explorer, and goto Add ASP.NET Folder > App_Code. Now right-click the App_Code folder and choose Add New Item.. LINQ to SQL Classes. This will bring up the Object Relationship Designer. All we need to do here is drag the tables we will be working with into the Designer, from the Server Explorer, and then Save. This will allow Visual Studio to create a representation of our database. For this example, we will name it Employees.dbml
Now we will create an extension of this class by again right-clicking the App_Code folder and choose Add New Item.. Class. We will also name this Employees and change the public class to public partial class. We may need to also add extra assembly references; we will be using the System.Collections.Generic, System.Data.Linq and System.Linq in particular.We are going to extend this class by providing methods to select the data in pages. Our first method will select all the data:
public static IEnumerable Select()
EmployeesDataContext db = new EmployeesDataContext();

return db.tblEmployees;
Notice the EmployeesDataContext refers to our LINQ to SQL class.Next, we add a method to move between the pages of the data:
public static IEnumerable SelectPage(int startRowIndex, int maximumRows)
return Select().Skip(startRowIndex).Take(maximumRows);

This method will be called when a new page is requested through PostBack. The GridView's paging links will provide the variables required for this method.Finally, we create a method that will get the number of records in the database:
public static int SelectCount()
return Select().Count();

The entire class extension will look something like this:
using System;
using System.Data;
using System.Configuration;
using System.Linq;
using System.Data.Linq;
using System.Web;
using System.Web.Security;
using System.Web.UI;
using System.Web.UI.HtmlControls;
using System.Web.UI.WebControls;
using System.Web.UI.WebControls.WebParts;
using System.Collections.Generic;
/// /// Extension class for Employees.dbml///
public partial class Employees{
public static IEnumerable Select()
EmployeesDataContext db = new EmployeesDataContext();return db.tblEmployees;
public static IEnumerable SelectPage(int startRowIndex, int maximumRows)
return Select().Skip(startRowIndex).Take(maximumRows);
public static int SelectCount()
return Select().Count();
Now we are done with the class, and can implement the functionality into our ASPX page. To make this work, we will need to use a GridView control and an ObjectDataSource:

Because we are using VS.NET 2008, we can simply add AJAX Functionality to our web application using a ScriptManager and UpdatePanel.In order to implement paging, we need to set the EnablePaging attributes on both of our controls. We also set the Method attributes of the ObjectDataSource to reflect those we created in our partial class - note that the TypeName refers to our class name.
NOTE: We can change the PageSize to set the number of items on each page.

Adding to XML File using LINQ and C#

This tutorial was created with Visual Studio 2008, but can be replicated in 2005 if you download and install Microsoft's LINQ Community Technology Preview release, which can be downloaded from here.
LINQ has the amazing ability to communicate and interact with many various data sources - databases, XML and varying objects. In this tutorial, we will be using a Windows Form to look at how we can use LINQ to add data to an XML file for storage. This is a quick and easy alternative to using a database. An XML file would be good for storing less information, which is not sensitive.

The XML file we will be using in this example is as follows:

We will create a Windows Form to view the XML file, and also to add new data to it. We will add three textboxes to the form - for name, city and age; two buttons - for adding and viewing XML data; and a Rich Text Box for viewing the XML data. We can also add labels to the text boxes.
Once our form is ready, we can move to the code-behind and add the namespaces we are going to use. The majority of which are added automatically. We may need to add System.Xml.Linq, however. It will look something like this:
using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.ComponentModel;
using System.Data;
using System.Drawing;
using System.Linq;
using System.Text;
using System.Windows.Forms;
using System.Xml.Linq;
Once we have added our references, we will create an on-click handler for the view button. We will add the following code-behind:
private void button1_Click(object sender, EventArgs e){
XDocument xmlDoc = XDocument.Load("People.xml");

var persons = from person in xmlDoc.Descendants("Person")
select new{
Name = person.Element("Name").Value,

City = person.Element("City").Value,
Age = person.Element("Age").Value,
txtResults.Text = "";
foreach (var person in persons){
txtResults.Text = txtResults.Text + "Name: " + person.Name + "\n";

txtResults.Text = txtResults.Text + "City: " + person.City + "\n";
txtResults.Text = txtResults.Text + "Age: " + person.Age + "\n\n";
if (txtResults.Text == "")
txtResults.Text = "No Results.";

This code-block utilizes LINQ, first loading the XML file into memory, and then selecting all the data from within. The LINQ query looks similar to a SQL statement. We select all data from the XML file and then loop through this data, outputting all results into the text box. Finally, we check to see if the XML file is empty.
Next, we will add the code for the button to add new data to the XML file. We create another handler for the other button:
private void button2_Click(object sender, EventArgs e){
XDocument xmlDoc = XDocument.Load("People.xml");

xmlDoc.Element("Persons").Add(new XElement("Person", new XElement("Name", txtName.Text),
new XElement("City", txtCity.Text), new XElement("Age", txtAge.Text)));

Similar to the other button, this one also opens the XML file, to enable us to edit it. We then simply add an element to the XML file, into the Persons element.Now our Window Form can both read and write to the XML file. The entire code-behind looks something like this:
using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.ComponentModel;
using System.Data;
using System.Drawing;
using System.Linq;
using System.Text;
using System.Windows.Forms;
using System.Xml.Linq;

namespace LINQtoXML_cs{
public partial class Form1 : Form{
public Form1(){

private void button1_Click(object sender, EventArgs e){
XDocument xmlDoc = XDocument.Load("People.xml");

var persons = from person in xmlDoc.Descendants("Person")
select new{
Name = person.Element("Name").Value,

City = person.Element("City").Value,
Age = person.Element("Age").Value,
txtResults.Text = "";
foreach (var person in persons){
txtResults.Text = txtResults.Text + "Name: " + person.Name + "\n";

txtResults.Text = txtResults.Text + "City: " + person.City + "\n";
txtResults.Text = txtResults.Text + "Age: " + person.Age + "\n\n";
if (txtResults.Text == "")
txtResults.Text = "No Results.";

private void button2_Click(object sender, EventArgs e)
XDocument xmlDoc = XDocument.Load("People.xml");xmlDoc.Element("Persons").Add(new XElement("Person", new XElement("Name", txtName.Text),
new XElement("City", txtCity.Text), new XElement("Age", txtAge.Text)));xmlDoc.Save("People.xml");


Performance Tips and Tricks in .NET Applications

Summary: This article is for developers who want to tweak their applications for optimal performance in the managed world. Sample code, explanations and design guidelines are addressed for Database, Windows Forms and ASP applications, as well as language-specific tips for Microsoft Visual Basic and Managed C++. (25 printed pages)
OverviewPerformance Tips for All ApplicationsTips for Database AccessPerformance Tips for ASP.NET ApplicationsTips for Porting and Developing in Visual BasicTips for Porting and Developing in Managed C++Additional ResourcesAppendix: Cost of Virtual Calls and Allocations
This white paper is designed as a reference for developers writing applications for .NET and looking for various ways to improve performance. If you are a developer who is new to .NET, you should be familiar with both the platform and your language of choice. This paper strictly builds on that knowledge, and assumes that the programmer already knows enough to get the program running. If you are porting an existing application to .NET, it's worth reading this document before you begin the port. Some of the tips here are helpful in the design phase, and provide information you should be aware of before you begin the port.
This paper is divided into segments, with tips organized by project and developer type. The first set of tips is a must-read for writing in any language, and contains advice that will help you with any target language on the Common Language Runtime (CLR). A related section follows with ASP-specific tips. The second set of tips is organized by language, dealing with specific tips about using Managed C++ and Microsoft® Visual Basic®.
Due to schedule limitations, the version 1 (v1) run time had to target the broadest functionality first, and then deal with special-case optimizations later. This results in a few pigeonhole cases where performance becomes an issue. As such, this paper covers several tips that are designed to avoid this case. These tips will not be relevant in the next version (vNext), as these cases are systematically identified and optimized. I'll point them out as we go, and it is up to you to decide whether it is worth the effort.
Performance Tips for All Applications
There are a few tips to remember when working on the CLR in any language. These are relevant to everyone, and should be the first line of defense when dealing with performance issues.
Throw Fewer Exceptions
Throwing exceptions can be very expensive, so make sure that you don't throw a lot of them. Use Perfmon to see how many exceptions your application is throwing. It may surprise you to find that certain areas of your application throw more exceptions than you expected. For better granularity, you can also check the exception number programmatically by using Performance Counters.
Finding and designing away exception-heavy code can result in a decent perf win. Bear in mind that this has nothing to do with try/catch blocks: you only incur the cost when the actual exception is thrown. You can use as many try/catch blocks as you want. Using exceptions gratuitously is where you lose performance. For example, you should stay away from things like using exceptions for control flow.
Here's a simple example of how expensive exceptions can be: we'll simply run through a For loop, generating thousands or exceptions and then terminating. Try commenting out the throw statement to see the difference in speed: those exceptions result in tremendous overhead.

public static void Main(string[] args){
int j = 0;
for(int i = 0; i < j =" i;" href="">gritty details of marshalling can be explored further on the MSDN Library. I recommend reading it carefully if you spend a lot of your time marshalling.
Design with ValueTypes
Use simple structs when you can, and when you don't do a lot of boxing and unboxing. Here's a simple example to demonstrate the speed difference:
using System;
namespace ConsoleApplication{
public struct foo{
public foo(double arg){ this.y = arg; }
public double y;
public class bar{
public bar(double arg){ this.y = arg; }
public double y;
class Class1{
static void Main(string[] args){
System.Console.WriteLine("starting struct loop...");
for(int i = 0; i < test =" new" i =" 0;" test2 =" new" href="">Performance Considerations of Run-Time Technologies in the .NET Framework.
Use AddRange to Add Groups
Use AddRange to add a whole collection, rather than adding each item in the collection iteratively. Nearly all windows controls and collections have both Add and AddRange methods, and each is optimized for a different purpose. Add is useful for adding a single item, whereas AddRange has some extra overhead but wins out when adding multiple items. Here are just a few of the classes that support Add and AddRange:
StringCollection, TraceCollection, etc.
Trim Your Working Set
Minimize the number of assemblies you use to keep your working set small. If you load an entire assembly just to use one method, you're paying a tremendous cost for very little benefit. See if you can duplicate that method's functionality using code that you already have loaded.
Keeping track of your working set is difficult, and could probably be the subject of an entire paper. Here are some tips to help you out:
Use vadump.exe to track your working set. This is discussed in another white paper covering various tools for the managed environment.
Look at Perfmon or Performance Counters. They can give you detail feedback about the number of classes that you load, or the number of methods that get JITed. You can get readouts for how much time you spend in the loader, or what percent of your execution time is spent paging.
Use For Loops for String Iteration—version 1
In C#, the foreach keyword allows you to walk across items in a list, string, etc. and perform operations on each item. This is a very powerful tool, since it acts as a general-purpose enumerator over many types. The tradeoff for this generalization is speed, and if you rely heavily on string iteration you should use a For loop instead. Since strings are simple character arrays, they can be walked using much less overhead than other structures. The JIT is smart enough (in many cases) to optimize away bounds-checking and other things inside a For loop, but is prohibited from doing this on foreach walks. The end result is that in version 1, a For loop on strings is up to five times faster than using foreach. This will change in future versions, but for version 1 this is a definite way to increase performance.
Here's a simple test method to demonstrate the difference in speed. Try running it, then removing the For loop and uncommenting the foreach statement. On my machine, the For loop took about a second, with about 3 seconds for the foreach statement.

public static void Main(string[] args) {
string s = "monkeys!";
int dummy = 0;

System.Text.StringBuilder sb = new System.Text.StringBuilder(s);
for(int i = 0; i < s =" sb.ToString();" i =" 0;" name="dotnetperftips_topic2a">Use StringBuilder for Complex String Manipulation
When a string is modified, the run time will create a new string and return it, leaving the original to be garbage collected. Most of the time this is a fast and simple way to do it, but when a string is being modified repeatedly it begins to be a burden on performance: all of those allocations eventually get expensive. Here's a simple example of a program that appends to a string 50,000 times, followed by one that uses a StringBuilder object to modify the string in place. The StringBuilder code is much faster, and if you run them it becomes immediately obvious.

namespace ConsoleApplication1.Feedback

using System;

public class Feedback{
public Feedback(){
text = "You have ordered: \n";

public string text;

public static int Main(string[] args) {
Feedback test = new Feedback();
String str = test.text;
for(int i=0;i<50000;i++){ str =" str" href="javascript:CopyCode(">

namespace ConsoleApplication1.Feedback

using System;

public class Feedback{
public Feedback(){
text = "You have ordered: \n";

public string text;

public static int Main(string[] args) {
Feedback test = new Feedback();
System.Text.StringBuilder SB =
new System.Text.StringBuilder(test.text);
for(int i=0;i<50000;i++){ name="dotnetperftips_topic3">Tips for Database Access
The philosophy of tuning for database access is to use only the functionality that you need, and to design around a 'disconnected' approach: make several connections in sequence, rather than holding a single connection open for a long time. You should take this change into account and design around it.
Microsoft recommends an N-Tier strategy for maximum performance, as opposed to a direct client-to-database connection. Consider this as part of your design philosophy, as many of the technologies in place are optimized to take advantage of a multi-tired scenario.
Use the Optimal Managed Provider
Make the correct choice of managed provider, rather than relying on a generic accessor. There are managed providers written specifically for many different databases, such as SQL (System.Data.SqlClient). If you use a more generic interface such as System.Data.Odbc when you could be using a specialized component, you will lose performance dealing with the added level of indirection. Using the optimal provider can also have you speaking a different language: the Managed SQL Client speaks TDS to a SQL database, providing a dramatic improvement over the generic OleDbprotocol.
Pick Data Reader Over Data Set When You Can
Use a data reader whenever when you don't need to keep the data lying around. This allows a fast read of the data, which can be cached if the user desires. A reader is simply a stateless stream that allows you to read data as it arrives, and then drop it without storing it to a dataset for more navigation. The stream approach is faster and has less overhead, since you can start using data immediately. You should evaluate how often you need the same data to decide if the caching for navigation makes sense for you. Here's a small table demonstrating the difference between DataReader and DataSet on both ODBC and SQL providers when pulling data from a server (higher numbers are better):

As you can see, the highest performance is achieved when using the optimal managed provider along with a data reader. When you don't need to cache your data, using a data reader can provide you with an enormous performance boost.
Use Mscorsvr.dll for MP Machines
For stand-alone middle-tier and server applications, make sure mscorsvr is being used for multiprocessor machines. Mscorwks is not optimized for scaling or throughput, while the server version has several optimizations that allow it to scale well when more than one processor is available.
Use Stored Procedures Whenever Possible
Stored procedures are highly optimized tools that result in excellent performance when used effectively. Set up stored procedures to handle inserts, updates, and deletes with the data adapter. Stored procedures do not have to be interpreted, compiled or even transmitted from the client, and cut down on both network traffic and server overhead. Be sure to use CommandType.StoredProcedure instead of CommandType.Text
Be Careful About Dynamic Connection Strings
Connection pooling is a useful way to reuse connections for multiple requests, rather than paying the overhead of opening and closing a connection for each request. It's done implicitly, but you get one pool per unique connection string. If you're generating connection strings dynamically, make sure the strings are identical each time so pooling occurs. Also be aware that if delegation is occurring, you'll get one pool per user. There are a lot of options that you can set for the connection pool, and you can track the performance of the pool by using the Perfmon to keep track of things like response time, transactions/sec, etc.
Turn Off Features You Don't Use
Turn off automatic transaction enlistment if it's not needed. For the SQL Managed Provider, it's done via the connection string:

SqlConnection conn = new SqlConnection(
Integrated Security=true;
When filling a dataset with the data adapter, don't get primary key information if you don't have to (e.g. don't set MissingSchemaAction.Add with key):

public DataSet SelectSqlSrvRows(DataSet dataset,string connection,string query){
SqlConnection conn = new SqlConnection(connection);
SqlDataAdapter adapter = new SqlDataAdapter();
adapter.SelectCommand = new SqlCommand(query, conn);
adapter.MissingSchemaAction = MissingSchemaAction.AddWithKey;
return dataset;
Avoid Auto-Generated Commands
When using a data adapter, avoid auto-generated commands. These require additional trips to the server to retrieve meta data, and give you a lower level of interaction control. While using auto-generated commands is convenient, it's worth the effort to do it yourself in performance-critical applications.
Beware ADO Legacy Design
Be aware that when you execute a command or call fill on the adapter, every record specified by your query is returned.
If server cursors are absolutely required, they can be implemented through a stored procedure in t-sql. Avoid where possible because server cursor-based implementations don't scale very well.
If needed, implement paging in a stateless and connectionless manner. You can add additional records to the dataset by:
Making sure PK info is present
Changing the data adapter's select command as appropriate, and
Calling Fill
Keep Your Datasets Lean
Only put the records you need into the dataset. Remember that the dataset stores all of its data in memory, and that the more data you request, the longer it will take to transmit across the wire.
Use Sequential Access as Often as Possible
With a data reader, use CommandBehavior.SequentialAccess. This is essential for dealing with blob data types since it allows data to be read off of the wire in small chunks. While you can only work with one piece of the data at a time, the latency for loading a large data type disappears. If you don't need to work the whole object at once, using Sequential Access will give you much better performance.
Performance Tips for ASP.NET Applications
Cache Aggressively
When designing an app using ASP.NET, make sure you design with an eye on caching. On server versions of the OS, you have a lot of options for tweaking the use of caches on the server and client side. There are several features and tools in ASP that you can make use of to gain performance.
Output Caching—Stores the static result of an ASP request. Specified using the <@% OutputCache %> directive:
Duration—Time item exists in the cache
VaryByParam—Varies cache entries by Get/Post params
VaryByHeader—Varies cache entries by Http header
VaryByCustom—Varies cache entries by browser
Override to vary by whatever you want:
Fragment Caching—When it is not possible to store an entire page (privacy, personalization, dynamic content), you can use fragment caching to store parts of it for quicker retrieval later.
a) VaryByControl—Varies the cached items by values of a control
Cache API—Provides extremely fine granularity for caching by keeping a hashtable of cached objects in memory (System.web.UI.caching). It also:
a) Includes Dependencies (key, file, time)
b) Automatically expires unused items
c) Supports Callbacks
Caching intelligently can give you excellent performance, and it's important to think about what kind of caching you need. Imagine a complex e-commerce site with several static pages for login, and then a slew of dynamically-generated pages containing images and text. You might want to use Output Caching for those login pages, and then Fragment Caching for the dynamic pages. A toolbar, for example, could be cached as a fragment. For even better performance, you could cache commonly used images and boilerplate text that appear frequently on the site using the Cache API. For detailed information on caching (with sample code), check out the ASP. NET Web site.
Use Session State Only If You Need To
One extremely powerful feature of ASP.NET is its ability to store session state for users, such as a shopping cart on an e-commerce site or a browser history. Since this is on by default, you pay the cost in memory even if you don't use it. If you're not using Session State, turn it off and save yourself the overhead by adding <@% EnabledSessionState = false %> to your asp. This comes with several other options, which are explained at the ASP. NET Web site.
For pages that only read session state, you can choose EnabledSessionState=readonly. This carries less overhead than full read/write session state, and is useful when you need only part of the functionality and don't want to pay for the write capabilities.
Use View State Only If You Need To
An example of View State might be a long form that users must fill out: if they click Back in their browser and then return, the form will remain filled. When this functionality isn't used, this state eats up memory and performance. Perhaps the largest performance drain here is that a round-trip signal must be sent across the network each time the page is loaded to update and verify the cache. Since it is on by default, you will need to specify that you do not want to use View State with <@% EnabledViewState = false %>. You should read more about View State on the the ASP. NET Web site to learn about some of the other options and settings to which you have access.
Apartment COM is designed to deal with threading in unmanaged environments. There are two kinds of Apartment COM: single-threaded and multithreaded. MTA COM is designed to handle multithreading, whereas STA COM relies on the messaging system to serialize thread requests. The managed world is free-threaded, and using Single Threaded Apartment COM requires that all unmanaged threads essentially share a single thread for interop. This results in a massive performance hit, and should be avoided whenever possible. If you can't port the Apartment COM object to the managed world, use <@%AspCompat = "true" %> for pages that use them. For a more detailed explanation of STA COM, see the MSDN Library.
Batch Compile
Always batch compile before deploying a large page into the Web. This can be initiated by doing one request to a page per directory and waiting until the CPU idles again. This prevents the Web server from being bogged down with compilations while also trying to serve out pages.
Remove Unnecessary Http Modules
Depending on the features used, remove unused or unnecessary http modules from the pipeline. Reclaiming the added memory and wasted cycles can provide you with a small speed boost.
Avoid the Autoeventwireup Feature
Instead of relying on autoeventwireup, override the events from Page. For example, instead of writing a Page_Load() method, try overloading the public void OnLoad() method. This allows the run time from having to do a CreateDelegate() for every page.
Encode Using ASCII When You Don't Need UTF
By default, ASP.NET comes configured to encode requests and responses as UTF-8. If ASCII is all your application needs, eliminated the UTF overhead can give you back a few cycles. Note that this can only be done on a per-application basis.
Use the Optimal Authentication Procedure
There are several different ways to authenticate a user and some of more expensive than others (in order of increasing cost: None, Windows, Forms, Passport). Make sure you use the cheapest one that best fits your needs.
Tips for Porting and Developing in Visual Basic
A lot has changed under the hood from Microsoft® Visual Basic® 6 to Microsoft® Visual Basic® 7, and the performance map has changed with it. Due to the added functionality and security restrictions of the CLR, some functions are simply unable to run as quickly as they did in Visual Basic 6. In fact, there are several areas where Visual Basic 7 gets trounced by its predecessor. Fortunately, there are two pieces of good news:
Most of the worst slowdowns occur during one-time functions, such as loading a control for the first time. The cost is there, but you only pay it once.
There are a lot of areas where Visual Basic 7 is faster, and these areas tend to lie in functions that are repeated during run time. This means that the benefit grows over time, and in several cases will outweigh the one-time costs.
The majority of the performance issues come from areas where the run time does not support a feature of Visual Basic 6, and it has to be added to preserve the feature in Visual Basic 7. Working outside of the run time is slower, making some features far more expensive to use. The bright side is that you can avoid these problems with a little effort. There are two main areas that require work to optimize for performance, and few simple tweaks you can do here and there. Taken together, these can help you step around performance drains, and take advantage of the functions that are much faster in Visual Basic 7.
Error Handling
The first concern is error handling. This has changed a lot in Visual Basic 7, and there are performance issues related to the change. Essentially, the logic required to implement OnErrorGoto and Resume is extremely expensive. I suggest taking a quick look at your code, and highlighting all the areas where you use the Err object, or any error-handling mechanism. Now look at each of these instances, and see if you can rewrite them to use try/catch. A lot of developers will find that they can convert to try/catch easily for most of these cases, and they should see a good performance improvement in their program. The rule of thumb is "if you can easily see the translation, do it."
Here's an example of a simple Visual Basic program that uses On Error Goto compared with the try/catch version.

Sub SubWithError(

On Error Goto SWETrap
Dim x As Integer
Dim y As Integer
x = x / y
Exit Sub
End Sub

Sub SubWithErrorResumeLabel()
On Error Goto SWERLTrap
Dim x As Integer
Dim y As Integer
x = x / y
Resume SWERLExit
End Sub

Exit Sub

Sub SubWithError(

Dim x As Integer
Dim y As Integer
x = x / y
End Try
End Sub

Sub SubWithErrorResumeLabel()
Dim x As Integer
Dim y As Integer
x = x / y
Goto SWERLExit
End Try

End Sub

The speed increase is noticeable. SubWithError() takes 244 milliseconds using OnErrorGoto, and only 169 milliseconds using try/catch. The second function takes 179 milliseconds compared to 164 milliseconds for the optimized version.
Use Early Binding
The second concern deals with objects and typecasting. Visual Basic 6 does a lot of work under the hood to support casting of objects, and many programmers aren't even aware of it. In Visual Basic 7, this is an area that out of which you can squeeze a lot of performance. When you compile, use early binding. This tells the compiler to insert a Type Coercion is only done when explicitly mentioned. This has two major effects:
Strange errors become easier to track down.
Unneeded coercions are eliminated, leading to substantial performance improvements.
When you use an object as if it were of a different type, Visual Basic will coerce the object for you if you don't specify. This is handy, since the programmer has to worry about less code. The downside is that these coercions can do unexpected things, and the programmer has no control over them.
There are instances when you have to use late binding, but most of the time if you're not sure then you can get away with early binding. For Visual Basic 6 programmers, this can be a bit awkward at first, since you have to worry about types more than in the past. This should be easy for new programmers, and people familiar with Visual Basic 6 will pick it up in no time.
Turn On Option Strict and Explicit
With Option Strict on, you protect yourself from inadvertent late binding and enforce a higher level of coding discipline. For a list of the restrictions present with Option Strict, see the MSDN Library. The caveat to this is that all narrowing type coercions must be explicitly specified. However, this in itself may uncover other sections of your code that are doing more work than you had previously thought, and it may help you stomp some bugs in the process.
Option Explicit is less restrictive than Option Strict, but it still forces programmers to provide more information in their code. Specifically, you must declare a variable before using it. This moves the type-inference from the run time into compile time. This eliminated check translates into added performance for you.
I recommend that you start with Option Explicit, and then turn on Option Strict. This will protect you from a deluge of compiler errors, and allow you to gradually start working in the stricter environment. When both of these options are used, you ensure maximum performance for your application.
Use Binary Compare for Text
When comparing text, use binary compare instead of text compare. At run time, the overhead is much lighter for binary.
Minimize the Use of Format()
When you can, use toString() instead of format(). In most cases, it will provide you with the functionality you need, with much less overhead.
Use Charw
Use charw instead of char. The CLR uses Unicode internally, and char must be translated at run time if it is used. This can result in a substantial performance loss, and specifying that your characters are a full word long (using charw) eliminates this conversion.
Optimize Assignments
Use exp += val instead of exp = exp + val. Since exp can be arbitrarily complex, this can result in lots of unnecessary work. This forces the JIT to evaluate both copies of exp, and many times this is not needed. The first statement can be optimized far better than the second, since the JIT can avoid evaluating the exp twice.
Avoid Unnecessary Indirection
When you use byRef, you pass pointers instead of the actual object. Many times this makes sense (side-effecting functions, for example), but you don't always need it. Passing pointers results in more indirection, which is slower than accessing a value that is on the stack. When you don't need to go through the heap, it is best to avoid it.
Put Concatenations in One Expression
If you have multiple concatenations on multiple lines, try to stick them all on one expression. The compiler can optimize by modifying the string in place, providing a speed and memory boost. If the statements are split into multiple lines, the Visual Basic compiler will not generate the Microsoft Intermediate Language (MSIL) to allow in-place concatenation. See the StringBuilder example discussed earlier.
Include Return Statements
Visual Basic allows a function to return a value without using the return statement. While Visual Basic 7 supports this, explicitly using return allows the JIT to perform slightly more optimizations. Without a return statement, each function is given several local variables on stack to transparently support returning values without the keyword. Keeping these around makes it harder for the JIT to optimize, and can impact the performance of your code. Look through your functions and insert return as needed. It doesn't change the semantics of the code at all, and it can help you get more speed from your application.
Tips for Porting and Developing in Managed C++
Microsoft is targeting Managed C++ (MC++) at a specific set of developers. MC++ is not the best tool for every job. After reading this document, you may decide that C++ is not the best tool, and that the tradeoff costs are not worth the benefits. If you aren't sure about MC++, there are many good resources to help you make your decision This section is targeted at developers who have already decided that they want to use MC++ in some way, and want to know about the performance aspects of it.
For C++ developers, working Managed C++ requires that several decisions be made. Are you porting some old code? If so, do you want to move the entire thing to managed space or are you instead planning to implement a wrapper? I'm going to focus on the 'port-everything' option or deal with writing MC++ from scratch for the purposes of this discussion, since those are the scenarios where the programmer will notice a performance difference.
Benefits of the Managed World
The most powerful feature of Managed C++ is the ability to mix and match managed and unmanaged code at the expression level. No other language allows you to do this, and there are some powerful benefits you can get from it if used properly. I'll walk through some examples of this later on.
The managed world also gives you huge design wins, in that a lot of common problems are taken care of for you. Memory management, thread scheduling and type coercions can be left to the run time if you desire, allowing you to focus your energies on the parts of the program that need it. With MC++, you can choose exactly how much control you want to keep.
MC++ programmers have the luxury of being able to use the Microsoft Visual C® 7 (VC7) backend when compiling to IL, and then using the JIT on top of that. Programmers that are used to working with the Microsoft C++ compiler are used to things being lightning-fast. The JIT was designed with different goals, and has a different set of strengths and weaknesses. The VC7 compiler, not bound by the time restrictions of the JIT, can perform certain optimizations that the JIT cannot, such as whole-program analysis, more aggressive inlining and enregistration. There are also some optimizations that can be performed only in typesafe environments, leaving more room for speed than C++ allows.
Because of the different priorities in the JIT, some operations are faster than before while others are slower. There are tradeoffs you make for safety and language flexibility, and some of them aren't cheap. Fortunately, there are things a programmer can do to minimize the costs.
Porting: All C++ Code Can Compile to MSIL
Before we go any further, it's important to note that you can compile any C++ code into MSIL. Everything will work, but there's no guarantee of type-safety and you pay the marshalling penalty if you do a lot of interop. Why is it helpful to compile to MSIL if you don't get any of the benefits? In situations where you are porting a large code base, this allows you to gradually port your code in pieces. You can spend your time porting more code, rather than writing special wrappers to glue the ported and not-yet-ported code together if you use MC++, and that can result in a big win. It makes porting applications a very clean process. To learn more about compiling C++ to MSIL, take a look at the /clr compiler option.
However, simply compiling your C++ code to MSIL doesn't give you the security or flexibility of the managed world. You need to write in MC++, and in v1 that means giving up a few features. The list below is not supported in the current version of the CLR, but may be in the future. Microsoft chose to support the most common features first, and had to cut some others in order to ship. There is nothing that prevents them from being added later, but in the meantime you will need to do without them:
Multiple Inheritance
Deterministic Finalization
You can always interoperate with unsafe code if you need those features, but you will pay the performance penalty of marshalling data back and forth. And bear in mind that those features can only be used inside the unmanaged code. The managed space has no knowledge of their existence. If you are deciding to port your code, think about how much you rely on those features in your design. In a few cases, the redesign is too expensive and you will want to stick with unmanaged code. This is the first decision you should make, before you start hacking.
Advantages of MC++ Over C# or Visual Basic
Coming from an unmanaged background, MC++ preserves a lot of the ability to handle unsafe code. MC++'s ability to mix managed and unmanaged code smoothly provides the developer with a lot of power, and you can choose where on the gradient you want to sit when writing your code. On one extreme, you can write everything in straight, unadulterated C++ and just compile with /clr. On the other, you can write everything as managed objects and deal with the language limitations and performance problems mentioned above.
But the real power of MC++ comes when you choose somewhere in between. MC++ allows you to tweak some of the performance hits inherent in managed code, by giving you precise control over when to use unsafe features. C# has some of this functionality in the unsafe keyword, but it's not an integral part of the language and it is far less useful than MC++. Let's step through some examples showing the finer granularity available in MC++, and we'll talk about the situations where it comes in handy.
Generalized "byref" pointers
In C# you can only take the address of some member of a class by passing it to a ref parameter. In MC++, a byref pointer is a first-class construct. You can take the address of an item in the middle of an array and return that address from a function:

Byte* AddrInArray( Byte b[] ) {
return &b[5];
We exploit this feature for returning a pointer to the "characters" in a System.String via our helper routine, and we can even loop through arrays using these pointers:

System::Char* PtrToStringChars(System::String*);
for( Char*pC = PtrToStringChars(S"boo");
pC != NULL;
pC++ )
... *pC ...
You can also do a linked-list traversal with injection in MC++ by taking the address of the "next" field (which you cannot do in C#):

Node **w = &Head;
while(true) {
if( *w == 0 val < (*w)->val ) {
Node *t = new Node(val,*w);
*w = t;
w = &(*w)->next;
In C#, you can't point to "Head", or take the address of the "next" field, so you have make a special-case where you're inserting at the first location, or if "Head" is null. Moreover, you have to look one node ahead all the time in the code. Compare this to what a good C# would produce:

if( Head==null val < t =" new" head =" t;" w="Head;" next ="=" t =" new" next =" t;" w =";" href="javascript:CopyCode(">
__value struct V {
int i;
int main() {
V v = {10};
__box V *pbV = __box(v);
pbV->i += 10; // update without casting
In C# you have to unbox to a "v", then update the value and re-box back to an Object:

struct B { public int i; }
static void Main() {
B b = new B();
b.i = 5;
object o = b; // implicit box
B b2 = (B)o; // explicit unbox
b2.i++; // update
o = b2; // implicit re-box
STL Collections vs. Managed Collections—v1
The bad news: In C++, using the STL Collections was often just as fast as writing that functionality by hand. The CLR frameworks are very fast, but they suffer from boxing and unboxing issues: everything is an object, and without template or generic support, all actions have to be checked at run time.
The good news: In the long term, you can bet that this problem will go away as generics are added to the run time. Code you deploy today will experience the speed boost without any changes. In the short term, you can use static casting to prevent the check, but this is no longer safe. I recommend using this method in tight code where performance is absolutely critical, and you've identified two or three hot spots.
Use Stack Managed Objects
In C++, you specify that an object should be managed by the stack or the heap. You can still do this in MC++, but there are restrictions you should be aware of. The CLR uses ValueTypes for all stack-managed objects, and there are limitations to what ValueTypes can do (no inheritance, for example). More information is available on the MSDN Library.
Corner Case: Beware Indirect Calls Within Managed Code—v1
In the v1 run time, all indirect function calls are made natively, and therefore require a transition into unmanaged space. Any indirect function call can only be made from native mode, which means that all indirect calls from managed code need a managed-to-unmanaged transition. This is a serious problem when the table returns a managed function, since a second transition must then be made to execute the function. When compared to the cost of executing a single Call instruction, the cost is fifty- to one hundred times slower than in C++!
Fortunately, when you are calling a method that resides within a garbage-collected class, optimization removes this. However, in the specific case of a regular C++ file that has been compiled using /clr, the method return will be considered managed. Since this cannot be removed by optimization, you are hit with the full double-transition cost. Below is an example of such a case.

//////////////////////// a.h: //////////////////////////
class X {
void mf1();
void mf2();

typedef void (X::*pMFunc_t)();

////////////// a.cpp: compiled with /clr /////////////////
#include "a.h"

int main(){
pMFunc_t pmf1 = &X::mf1;
pMFunc_t pmf2 = &X::mf2;

X *pX = new X();

return 0;

////////////// b.cpp: compiled without /clr /////////////////
#include "a.h"

void X::mf1(){}

////////////// c.cpp: compiled with /clr ////////////////////
#include "a.h"
void X::mf2(){}
There are several ways to avoid this:
Make the class into a managed class ("__gc")
Remove the indirect call, if possible
Leave the class compiled as unmanaged code (e.g. do not use /clr)
Minimize Performance Hits—version 1
There are several operations or features that are simply more expensive in MC++ under version 1 JIT. I'll list them and give some explanation, and then we'll talk about what you can do about them.
Abstractions—This is an area where the beefy, slow C++ backend compiler wins heavily over the JIT. If you wrap an int inside a class for abstraction purposes, and you access it strictly as an int, the C++ compiler can reduce the overhead of the wrapper to practically nothing. You can add many levels of abstraction to the wrapper, without increasing the cost. The JIT is unable to take the time necessary to eliminate this cost, making deep abstractions more expensive in MC++.
Floating Point—The v1 JIT does not currently perform all the FP-specific optimizations that the VC++ backend does, making floating point operations more expensive for now.
Multidimensional Arrays—The JIT is better at handling jagged arrays than multidimensional ones, so use jagged arrays instead.
64 bit Arithmetic—In future versions, 64-bit optimizations will be added to the JIT.
What You Can Do
At every phase of development, there are several things you can do. With MC++, the design phase is perhaps the most important area, as it will determine how much work you end up doing and how much performance you get in return. When you sit down to write or port an application, you should consider the following things:
Identify areas where you use multiple inheritance, templates, or deterministic finalization. You will have to get rid of these, or else leave that part of your code in unmanaged space. Think about the cost of redesigning, and identify areas that can be ported.
Locate performance hot spots, such as deep abstractions or virtual function calls across managed space. These will also require a design decision.
Look for objects that have been specified as stack-managed. Make sure they can be converted into ValueTypes. Mark the others for conversion to heap-managed objects.
During the coding stage, you should be aware of the operations that are more expensive and the options you have in dealing with them. One of the nicest things about MC++ is that you come to grips with all the performance issues up front, before you start coding: this is helpful in paring down work later on. However, there are still some tweaks you can perform while you code and debug.
Determine which areas make heavy use of floating point arithmetic, multidimensional arrays or library functions. Which of these areas are performance critical? Use profilers to pick the fragments where the overhead is costing you most, and pick which option seems best:
Keep the whole fragment in unmanaged space.
Use static casts on the library accesses.
Try tweaking boxing/unboxing behavior (explained later).
Code your own structure.
Finally, work to minimize the number of transitions you make. If you have some unmanaged code or an interop call sitting in a loop, make the entire loop unmanaged. That way you'll only pay the transition cost twice, rather than for each iteration of the loop.
Additional Resources
Related topics on performance in the .NET Framework include:
Performance Considerations of Run-Time Technologies in the .NET Framework
Watch for future articles currently under development, including an overview of design, architectural and coding philosophies, a walkthrough of performance analysis tools in the managed world, and a performance comparison of .NET to other enterprise applications available today.
Appendix: Cost of Virtual Calls and Allocations
Call Type
# Calls/sec
ValueType Non-Virtual Call
Class Non-Virtual Call
Class Virtual Call
ValueType Virtual (Obj Method) Call
ValueType Virtual (Overridden Obj Method) Call
Load Type by Newing (Non-Static)
Load Type by Newing (Virtual Methods)
Note The test machine is a PIII 733Mhz, running Windows 2000 Professional with Service Pack 2.
This chart compares the cost associated with different types of method calls, as well as the cost of instantiating a type that contains virtual methods. The higher the number, the more calls/instantiations-per-second can be performed. While these numbers will certainly vary on different machines and configurations, the relative cost of performing one call over another remains significant.
ValueType Non-Virtual Call: This test calls an empty non-virtual method contained within a ValueType.
Class Non-Virtual Call: This test calls an empty non-virtual method contained within a class.
Class Virtual Call: This test calls an empty virtual method contained within a class.
ValueType Virtual (Obj Method) Call: This test calls ToString() (a virtual method) on a ValueType, which resorts to the default object method.
ValueType Virtual (Overridden Obj Method) Call: This test calls ToString() (a virtual method) on a ValueType that has overridden the default.
Load Type by Newing (Static): This test allocates space for a class with only static methods.
Load Type by Newing (Virtual Methods): This test allocates space for a class with virtual methods.
One conclusion you can draw is that Virtual Function calls are about two times as expensive as regular calls when you're calling a method in a class. Bear in mind that calls are cheap to begin with, so I wouldn't remove all virtual calls. You should always use virtual methods when it makes sense to do so.
The JIT cannot inline virtual methods, so you lose a potential optimization if you get rid of non-virtual methods.
Allocating space for an object that has virtual methods is slightly slower than the allocation for an object without them, since extra work must be done to find space for the virtual tables.
Notice that calling a non-virtual method within a ValueType is more than three times as fast as in a class, but once you treat it as a class you lose terribly. This is characteristic of ValueTypes: treat them like structs and they're lighting fast. Treat them like classes and they're painfully slow. ToString() is a virtual method, so before it can be called, the struct must be converted to an object on the heap. Instead of being twice as slow, calling a virtual method on a ValueType is now eighteen times as slow! The moral of the story? Don't treat ValueTypes as classes.

What is LINQ?

  • Microsoft Babies
    Microsoft new baby yes I am talking about LINQ stand for Language-Integrated Query is now available as a integral part of Visual Studio Orcas. Microsoft releases the new Visual Studio with the name of Orcas and all Microsoft previous efforts (Windows Communication Foundation WCF, Windows Workflow Foundation WWF, Windows Presentation Foundation WPF, Windows CardSpace and LINQ) are integrated in this Studio. From last one and half years Anders Hejlsberg team done a tremendous job in the overcoming the gap between the data impedance. Mr. Anders team gives a native syntax to developers in the form LINQ to C# and VB.Net for accessing data from any repository. The repository could be in memory object, database (still MS SQL Server only) and XML files.

    What is LINQ?
    Still lots of folks don’t understand what LINQ is doing. Basically LINQ address the current database development model in the context of Object Oriented Programming Model. If some one wants to develop database application on .Net platform the very simple approach he uses ADO.Net. ADO.Net is serving as middle ware in application and provides complete object oriented wrapper around the database SQL. Developing application in C# and VB.Net so developer must have good knowledge of object oriented concept as well as SQL, so it means developer must be familiar with both technologies to develop an application. If here I can say SQL statements are become part of the C# and VB.Net code so it’s not mistaken in form of LINQ. According to Anders Hejlsberg the chief architect of C#.

    “Microsoft original motivation behind LINQ was to address the impedance mismatch between programming languages and database.”

    LINQ has a great power of querying on any source of data, data source could be the collections of objects, database or XML files. We can easily retrieve data from any object that implements the IEnumerable interface. Microsoft basically divides LINQ into three areas and that are give below.

    LINQ to Object {Queries performed against the in-memory data}
    LINQ to ADO.Net
    LINQ to SQL (formerly DLinq) {Queries performed against the relation database only Microsoft SQL Server Supported}
    LINQ to DataSet {Supports queries by using ADO.NET data sets and data tables}
    LINQ to Entities {Microsoft ORM solution}
    LINQ to XML (formerly XLinq) { Queries performed against the XML source}

    I hope few above lines increase your concrete knowledge about Microsoft LINQ and now we write some code snippet of LINQ.
    Code Snippet
    int[] nums = new int[] {0,1,2};
    var res = from a in nums
    where a < nums =" int[]" result =" nums.Sum();">Aggregation
  • Aggregate , Average ,Count ,LongCount, Max, Min, Sum
  • Cast,OfType,ToArray,ToDictionary, ToList, ToLookup, ToSequence
  • DefaultIfEmpty, ElementAt, ElementAtOrDefault, First, FirstOrDefault, Last, LastOrDefault, Single, SingleOrDefault
  • EqualAll
  • Empty, Range, Repeat
  • GroupBy
  • GroupJoin, Join
  • OrderBy, ThenBy, OrderByDescending, ThenByDescending, Reverse
  • Skip, SkipWhile, Take, TakeWhile
  • All, Any, Contains
  • Where
  • Select, SelectMany
  • Concat, Distinct, Except, Intersect, Union
    To the good use of above operator types I need samle patient class so here it
    using System;
    public class Patient
    // Fields
    private string _name;
    private int _age;
    private string _gender;
    private string _area;
    // Properties
    public string PatientName
    get { return _name; }
    set { _name = value; }

    public string Area
    get { return _area; }
    set { _area = value; }
    public String Gender
    get { return _gender; }
    set { _gender = value; }
    public int Age
    get { return _age; }
    set { _age = value; }

    Here is my code that intiliaze patients object with following data.

    List patients = new List {
    new Patient { PatientName="Ali Khan", Age=20, Gender="Male" , Area = "Gulshan"},
    new Patient { PatientName="Ahmed Siddiqui", Age=25 ,Gender="Male", Area = "NorthKarachi" },
    new Patient { PatientName="Nida Ali", Age=20, Gender="Female", Area = "NorthNazimabad"},
    new Patient { PatientName="Sana Khan", Age=18, Gender="Female", Area = "NorthNazimabad"},
    new Patient { PatientName="Shahbaz Khan", Age=19, Gender="Male", Area = "Gulshan"},
    new Patient { PatientName="Noman Altaf", Age=19, Gender="Male", Area = "Gulshan"},
    new Patient { PatientName="Uzma Shah", Age=23, Gender="Female", Area = "NorthKarachi"}};

    Patient p = new Patient();
    p.Age =33; p.Gender = "male";
    p.PatientName = "Hammad Ali";
    p.Area = "Defence";

    This code snippet fetch those records whose gender is equal to “Male”.
    gdView.DataSource = from pa in patients
    where pa.Gender == "Male"
    orderby pa.PatientName, pa.Gender, pa.Age
    select pa;

    The following code snippet uses the selection operator type, which brings all those records whose age is more than 20 years.
    var mypatient = from pa in patients
    where pa.Age > 20
    orderby pa.PatientName, pa.Gender, pa.Age
    select pa;

    foreach(var pp in mypatient)
    Debug.WriteLine(pp.PatientName + " "+ pp.Age + " " + pp.Gender);
    The following code snippet uses the grouping operator type that group patient data on the bases area.
    var op = from pa in patients
    group pa by pa.Area into gselect new {area = g.Key, count = g.Count(), allpatient = g};

    foreach(var g in op)
    Debug.WriteLine(g.count+ "," + g.area);
    foreach(var l in g.allpatient)
    This code snippet determine the count of those records, which lay in above 20 years.
    int patientCount = (from pa in patients
    where pa.Age > 20
    orderby pa.PatientName, pa.Gender, pa.Age
    select pa).Count();
    All the above codes are few example of LINQ to Object technique of LINQ. In my up coming post you will see both LINQ to SQL and LINQ to XML code snippets.

XSLT transformation with c#

Figure 1 - XSL Transforming an XML Data File based on Radio Selection
XSL (eXtensible Stylesheet Language) is a powerful XML language that enables you to specify how you want your XML data to appear on your Web Page. Table 1 shows a list of common XSL commands and what they do:
In our ASP.NET application we want to take a list of customers and display them nicely on a web page. The XSL code in listing 1a cycles through each customer in the XML customer data shown in listing 1b and transforms the information into a readable HTML Table (listing 2). The transform uses the XSL for-each select command to loop and builds the table row by row. Within the loop, the transform fills the appropriate customer information using the XSL value-of select command, selecting on each Customer node in the XML file.

If the XSL transform in listing 1a is applied to the XML Data in listing 1b, the HTML table output in listing 2 results:
Listing 2 - Output resulting from the xsl transform of listing 1a applied to xml data in listing 1b
Using ASP.NET to Transform XML
ASP.NET comes with an XML control that allows you to transform an XML file using XSL. You just need to do 2 things: (1) assign an XmlDocument containing the XML you want to transform to the XML control's Document property. (2) assign an XslTransform class containing the XSL to the Transform property of the XML control.
Listing 3 - Making the transform happen using the Xml class
// get the physical directory path of the root default page's directory
string path = Path.GetDirectoryName(Request.PhysicalPath);
// Create the Xml Document
XmlDocument xmlDoc = new XmlDocument();
// load the xml customer database from the customers.xml file
xmlDoc.Load(String.Format("{0}/Docs/{1}", path, "customers.xml"));
If we just wanted to use the existing XSL contained in the customerformat.xsl file, then the process of retrieving the XSL is fairly straightforward. Simply construct the XslTransform object and call the Load method, just like we did with the XmlDocument.

Listing 5 - Loading a StyleSheet into an XslTransform object
// by loading it indirectly with an XmlReader
XslTransform xslTransform = new XslTransform();
xslTransform.Load(String.Format("{0}/Docs/{1}",path, Session["TransformFile"]));
However, we would like to do something a bit more interesting. We want to be able to manipulate the XSL in memory. Therefore we need a way to read the XSL, convert it to a string, alter it, and then shove the string into an XslTransform object. This turns out to be a little less straightforward. The XSL we want to load into memory is shown below in listing 6. Note that this XSL differs from the XSL in listing 1a with just one xsl command, xsl:if. We want to be able to dynamically replace the expression with a boolean expression of our choosing, such as . In the case of our ASP.NET program, we want to replace the expression {0} with something that is always true (such as the boolean expression 1 > 0) when Employees Only is not checked, but we want to filter on the condition 'Employee='yes' when Employees Only is checked. This way, all workers (consultants and employees) will be shown when the employees checkbox is not checked, but only employees will be shown when the employees check box is checked.

Listing 6 - XSL Transform with xsl:if to produce a table based on a given condition

In order to read the XSL into a string that we can manipulate in memory we will use a StreamReader. Then we'll replace the {0} in the string with the appropriate boolean expression using the string Replace method. Next we'll read the string into a memory stream and then use the memory stream to construct an XmlTextReader containing the string. Finally, we will construct the XslTransform object with the XmlTextReader containing the manipulated XSL string. As convoluted as this sounds, it is a workable approach. However, it would have been faster if there were a XslTransform method you could call that took a string containing the XSL.

Listing 7 - Dynamically changing XSL inside a string and loading the string into and XslTransform object

// need to go through a bit of a convoluted task// to load the transform with a string// by loading it indirectly with an XmlReader
XslTransform xslTransform = new XslTransform();

xslTransform.Load(String.Format("{0}/Docs/{1}",path, Session["TransformFile"]));

StreamReader sr = new StreamReader(String.Format("{0}/Docs/{1}", path, Session["TransformFile"]));

string xslBlock = sr.ReadToEnd();

// alter the 'xsl:if' statement in the xsl string // to test for filtering on employees

if (chkEmployee.Checked)


// if 'only employees' is checked,

// put a condition to test whether or not

// we have an employee

// in the xsl:if expression

xslBlock = xslBlock.Replace("{0}", "Employee = \'yes\'");




// if 'only employees' is not checked,

// put a condition that is always true (1>0)

// in the xsl:if expression

xslBlock = xslBlock.Replace("{0}", "1 > 0");

// need to convert the xsl string to a memory stream

// in order to put it in the xml reader.

MemoryStream ms = new MemoryStream(System.Text.ASCIIEncoding.ASCII.GetBytes(xslBlock));

XmlReader reader = new XmlTextReader(ms);

// load the tranform with the XmlReader containing

// the xsl transform string


Although XSL may seem complex, it is actually a useful language for taking an XML file containing data and presenting it effectively on a web page. This article has shown you how you can take advantage of the features in ASP.NET to alter XSL on the fly in response to input from the web browser and display your XML data differently. So add a bit of style to your ASP.NET apps, to C a sharper view of your data with a combination of stylesheets and .NET.